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代名詞の正しい用法

  1. 疑問代名詞(interrogative pronoun)は質問をするときに用いられる。

    Who came?
    Which is your hat?
    What did you say?
    Whom did you see?

  2. 不定代名詞(indefinite pronoun)は特定でない人を表すときに用いられる。ach, either, neither, everyone, everybody, anyone, anybody, one , no one, nobody, someone, somebody

    Everyone expected the mayor to be reelected?
    Some of her friends came?

  3. 関係代名詞(relative pronoun)は先行詞を説明する節を表す。

    The man who called is Jones.
    呼ばれた男はジョーンズである
    The older girl, whom you met, is Julia.
    あなたが会った年の多いほうがジュリアです
    The term paper, which he wrote carefully, earned an A.
    注意深く書いた学期の論文はAであった
    The student that (or who) earned A's wrote thier term papers carefully.
    Aをとった学生は注意深く学期の論文を書いた。

    文や節を参照するときにはwhichを用いてはならない。

    Dust and grime spotted his coat, which did not bother him.
    Dust and grime spotted his coat, but the fact did not bother him.

  4. 指示代名詞(demonstrative pronoun)

    This is my book.
    Those are the shoes I meant.
    She wanted to graduate and then go to Europe. This appealed to her.
    She wanted to graduate and then go to Europe. This plan appealed to her.
    She enjoys those kind of shows.
    She enjoys that kind of shows. [単数]
    She enjoys those kinds of shows. [複数]

  5. 相互代名詞(reciprocal pronoun) each other, one another

    The two boys helped each other.
    The three girls talked to one another.

  6. 再帰代名詞(reflexive pronoun) (-selfの形をした代名詞で目的格として用いられる)

    He hurt himself. [himselfは主語heを指している]
    She made a promise to herself.

    John and myself went.
    John and I went.
    She gave the book to Mary and myself.
    She gave the book to Mary and me.

  7. 強調代名詞(intensive pronoun) (-selfの形をした代名詞で強調の目的で用いられる)

    I myself am to blame.
    They themselves are responsible.

  8. 主格、目的格、所有格としての代名詞

    主格 所有格 目的格
    I my, mine me
    you your, yours you
    he his him
    she her, hers her
    it its it
    we our, ours us
    they their, theirs them
    who whose whom

  9. 代名詞としての関係代名詞

    Notify whoever comes.
    Select whomever you wish.
    Give the prize to whoever wins.[whoever winsは名詞句でtoの目的語であるが、
    whoeverはwinsの主語である)

  10. 同格での代名詞

    Two people, you and she, will go.
    Father took us -Jean and me- downtown.
    Let's you and me go to the store. [YouとmeはLet usのusと同格]

  11. 関係副詞(when, where, why) 関係副詞は,接続詞と副詞の2つの機能をもっている.

    1)先行詞のある場合 先行詞は通常,the time when (時を表す語)/ the place where(場所を表す語) / the reason why(理由を表す語) と考える.

    Tuesday will be the day when I am busiest.
    Tuesday is the day when I am busiest.
      火曜日は私が最も忙しい日です。

    関係副詞whenで2つの文を結ぶときは,時制の一致に従わなければならない.

    2-6-11a-1EXERCISE Choose the word or phrase that is incorrect.
    $ \underbrace{\rm When}_{A}$ the client finally $ \underbrace{\rm arrived}_{B}$, Mr. Kono $ \underbrace{\rm has  been}_{C}$ wainting $ \underbrace{\rm for}_{D}$ two hours.

    This is the factory where may brother works.
    ここが兄が働いている工場です.

    The reason why he has lost his job is not clear.
    彼が失業した理由は明らかではない.

    2)先行詞のない場合

    the day を先行詞としてwhenの前に補って考える.
    I'll never forget when I first met you.
    私は初めて君に会った時を忘れないだろう.

    the place を先行詞としてwhenの前に補って考える.
    I'll never forget where I first met you.
    私は初めて君に会った場所を忘れないだろう.

     


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: 前置詞の正しい用法 : 文法 : 形容詞と副詞   目次   索引
Administrator 平成17年6月27日